Megalitter i Grækenland


Delphi Temple

Delphi ligger flot hvor man kan se ud over et skønt område, da området ligger oppe på en høj med udsigt langt væk. Delphi Temple

Ancient Temple in Central Greece

Ancient temple dedicated to Apollo and location of the famous oracle.



Mycenae.

Hillfort on the Peleponese from about 1500 to 1100 BCE.

Main Citadel of Achaen Greeks of the Mycenean Civilisation who would eventually conquer Troy, as describred in Homer's Illiad. The sie is memorable mosly on acount of the monumental Lions gate, the Grave Circle A, where the so called maks of Agamemnon was found, as well as an ingeneous Cistern. High quality artwork similar to that of the Minoans was also found. The palace appears to have burned down around 1200 BCE and the Mycenean Civilisation ceased to exist around 1100 when the Dorians invaded, leading to a greek dark age. This also marked the end of he Bronze Age. There are numerous Tholoses in the Area and the Fortress appears to have ruled ofver Thyrinth on the coast. 280 Meters Altitude. Unesco World Heritage Site.



Tumulus of the Plateans

Round Barrow in Attica

Tumulus errected for the Plateans who fell alongside Athenian troops in 490 BCE at the battle of Marathon. A sort of Dromos appears to have been cut into the side and a door installed, which does not look ancient.

A force of 7,000 Athenians and Plateans defeated 20,000 Persians. The Greeks lost 192 men and the Persians 7,000. The Persians then fled in disarray on their ships and their invasion of Greece was broken. The Greeks sent Pheidippides on a 42 Km run to Athens to announce the victory, but the happless hero died of exhaustion soon after fulfilling his mision.

The site should be seen in conjunction with the Tumulus of the Athenians and Trophy of the Athenians nearby and is on the grounds of the Marathon Museum.



Olympia The 'Workshop of Pheidias' at Olympia. This is said to be the workshop where Pheidias created the chryselephantine Statue of Zeus, one of the seven wonders of the world. The identification is shaky. It's said to rest on an artefact with the name 'Pheidias' scratched on it. Rumour has it that a German archaelogy student later confessed to scratching the name.



Corinth Temple of Apollo

Ancient Temple in Peloponese Peninsula

The Archaic Temple of Apollo is a Doric peripteral temple, constructed around 540 BCE, originally consiting of 6 by 15 monolithic columns quarried from the limestone ridge near the location of the temple. Today only 7 of its original 38 Doric columns are still standing.They are about 4 Meters tall and 2 Meters in diameter. The stylobate measures 54 by 21 meters. The temple which stands on the hill above the Roman forum at Corinth is one of the Greek buildings which the Roman colonists restored for their use. It had been built to replace an even earlier temple on the same spot. Pausanias described seeing it.



Sounion Temple of Poseidon

Ancient Temple in Attica

Spectacular 5th century BCE Poros limestone Doric temple on a cliff on southernmost point in Attica, surrounded by the Agean Sea on three sides. The temple replaced an earlier 6th century temple destroyed during the Persian invasion. Some restoration was undertaken in the 19th century.

The temple is surrounded by the remains of fortifications which protected the sanctuary during the 4th Centry BCE Peleponese War. There is also the foundations of a destroyed Athena temple down the hill.

Near perfect East-West Allignment.



Det minoiske palads Knossos

Det berømte minoiske palads Knossos ligger ca. 5-6 km syd for Iraklion. Knossos var det mest imponerende og luksuriøse bygningsværk, som kunne ses i Europa i bronzealderen (2.800-1.100 f.Kr.).

Udgravningerne blev først ledet af Minos Kalokairinos og senere af englænderen Sir Arthur Evans. Paladset blev bygget to gange, anden gang endnu smukkere end første gang. Det dækkede et areal på 22.000 kvadratmeter. Der var omkring 1.400 værelser i det originale palads, og der boede 300 mennesker (Knossos' kongelige familie og deres tjenestestab). Kongen hed Minos, og var søn af Zeus.

På Kreta findes der 4 minoiske paladser, men Knosses er det største af dem. Alle paladserne er meget karakteristiske med deres slotsgårde, templer og opbevaringsrum. På Knosses findes to store brolagte slotsgårde, mange opbevaringsrum, templer, private værelser og et teater. Nogle steder var bygningerne 4-5 etager høje. Trapper med lave alabaster trin fører op til de øverste etager eller ned til kælderetagerne.

De besøgende kan se åbninger (vinduer, døre, ovenlys) over hele paladset. Minoerne elskede naturen, og kønne freskoer udsmykker paladsets vægge. Temaerne er taget fra dagligdagen eller fra naturen.

Det siges, at ingen gæst kunne gå ind i paladset uden én til at føre ham rundt. Årsagen er, at ingen kunne finde rundt i den berømte "labyrint". Dets navn kommer af ordet "Lavrys", som betyder "dobbeltøkse". Økser blev meget brugt i dagligdagen, og mange af dem blev fundet i paladset eller endda indhugget i Knossos vægge. Så labyrint betyder "De dobbelte øksers hus", selve paladset.



Knossos. Ved udgravningerne af paladset i Knossos har arkæologer fundet flere bemalede statuetter i fajance og elfenben af en kvindeskikkelse i en rigt dekoreret dragt med halværmer og en udskæring, som blotter brysterne. Kvinden er ofte kaldt Slangegudinden og blevet tolket som en chthonisk gudinde, dvs. knyttet til det jordiske. I hver hånd holder hun en slange, symboler på Jorden, og på hovedet bærer hun et katteagtigt dyr, måske en panter. Statuetterne dateres til ca. 1600 f.Kr. Denne befinder sig på museet i Iraklio, Kreta. Læs mere

Knossos, oldtidsby på Kreta ca. 5 km SØ for Iraklio. Knossos var centrum for den minoiske bronzealderkultur, og her udgravede den britiske arkæolog Arthur Evans 1900-39 det største minoiske palads på Kreta. Der var betydelig beboelse på stedet allerede i stenalderen fra ca. 6000 f.Kr. Det første palads blev bygget ca. 2000 f.Kr. Efter at være blevet ødelagt af et voldsomt jordskælv ca. 1700 f.Kr. blev paladset genopbygget; ruinerne af dette ca. 2 ha store palads kan ses på stedet i dag. Det bestod af en gård omgivet af fire fløje. I den bevarede stueetage lå bl.a. værksteder og store magasinrum. Ud mod gården lå et helligdomsområde. Østfløjen, som er den bedst bevarede, havde op til fem etager og var formodentlig beboet af herskerfamilien. Hovedindgangen lå i sydenden, og herfra førte en monumental trappe op til overetagen, hvor man har rekonstrueret nogle store ceremonielle rum. Mange af paladsets rum var udsmykket med vægfreskoer; motiverne var hentet fra naturen eller religiøse handlinger. Mange steder er dobbeltøkser (gr. labrys) afbildet, hvilket sammen med paladsets imponerende størrelse og mange rum muligvis har givet ophav til ordet labyrint og myten om Minos, Ariadne, Theseus og Minotauros.

Rundt om paladset lå store fritliggende bygninger. Flere gravpladser er fundet omkring byen, bl.a. på Gypsadeshøjen syd for paladset. Voldsomme jordskælv og brande ødelagde paladset delvis i ca. 1450 f.Kr., men som det eneste palads på Kreta blev det ikke forladt. Tværtimod synes det herefter at have været under herredømme af mykenere fra det græske fastland. Rige fund af brændte lertavler med Linear B-skrift vidner om paladsets rolle som administrativt centrum i den mykenske periode. Tidspunktet for paladsets endelige ødelæggelse er omdiskuteret, men den kan tidligst være sket ca. 1375 f.Kr. Knossos forblev en betydelig by i de efterfølgende perioder. I 1. årh. f.Kr. blev den en romersk koloni; både den græske og den romerske by lå nord for det minoiske palads. Med arabernes erobring af Kreta ca. 825 ophørte Knossos' lange historie.



The Dragonhouses of Evia island in Greece are buildings attributed to the late Neolithic/Bronze Age up to the Hellenistic period. They appear to be religious sites of the Dryops, the first inhabitants of this area. They possibly represent an unknown facet of Ancient Greek scientific thought.

The construction method is impressive as the boulders used for the walls are huge and perfectly matched, while the slabs used for the roofs artfully meet toward the center, thus forming a vault.

A common trait is the entrances where usually two big slabs form the frame to support the third overhead, which is tilted.

Our first impression brings on the question: What tools and know-how were available three thousand years ago, to cut so artfully cut and place these huge boulders?

How can one not wonder noticing the converging slabs suspended above one’s head?

Tradition says that these were houses inhabited by dragons and that is why they are called "Dragonhouses" or "Drakospita".

The legend of these super-natural beings roams the mountains of southern Evia,for thousands of years. The tales and traditions talk of dragons living in the mountains`perhaps only in people's imaginations.

Opinions and suggestions vary as to their use, and through the years various theories have been expressed. Archaic paganistic temples,dwellings for Neolithic-era quarry workers,or some of the sturdiest sheep pens ever constructed by ancient man?

Situated on the windswept mountain slopes of southern Evia are what conceivably may described as Greece's version of Stonehenge,mysterious structures whose origins are lost in time, in short 'Dragonhouses" Today, there are about 25 such buildings still existing in Southern Evia.

You can see some of those Dragonhouses on my web site The Dragonhouses of Evia.



Wiki: Treasury of Atreus (1/2) The Treasury of Atreus or Tomb of Agamemnon is an impressive "tholos" tomb at Mycenae, Greece (on the Panagitsa Hill) constructed around 1250 BCE. The lintel stone above the doorway weighs 120 tons. The tomb was used for an unknown period of time. Cited by Pausanias, it was still visible in 1879 when the archeologist German Heinrich Schliemann discovered the other graves under the agora in the Acropolis at Mycenae.

Entrance, Treasury of Atreus

It was built around the half of the 16th century BC (400 years before the alleged time of the Trojan War) and perhaps held the remains of the sovereign who completed the reconstruction of the fortress or one of his successors. The grave repeats the shape of other tholoi of the eastern Mediterranean, also present in the environs of Mycenae (about twelve), but in its monumental shape and grandiosity it is one of the most impressive monuments surviving from Mycenaean Greece.

Interior

Section of the tomb

It is formed of a semi-subterranean room of circular plan, with a corbel arch covering that is ogival in section. With an interior height of 13.5m and a diameter of 14.5m, [1] it was the tallest and widest dome in the world for over a thousand years until construction of the Temple of Mercury in Baiae and the Pantheon in Rome. (See List of world's largest domes.) Great care was taken in the positioning of the enormous stones, to guarantee the vault's stability over time in bearing the force of compression from its own weight. This obtained a perfectly smoothed internal surface, onto which could be placed gold, silver and bronze decoration.

The tholos was entered from an inclined uncovered hall or dromos, 36 meters long and with dry-stone walls. A short passage led from the tholos to the actual burial chamber, which was dug out in a nearly cubical shape.



Mycenae (Greek ?????a? Mykenai or ?????? Mykene), is an archaeological site in Greece, located about 90 km south-west of Athens, in the north-eastern Peloponnese. Argos is 6 km to the south; Corinth, 48 km to the north. From the hill on which the palace was located one can see across the Argolid to the Saronic Gulf.

In the second millennium BC Mycenae was one of the major centres of Greek civilization, a military stronghold which dominated much of southern Greece. The period of Greek history from about 1600 BC to about 1100 BC is called Mycenaean in reference to Mycenae.

The Temple of Olympian Zeus (Greek: ?a?? t?? ???µp??? ???? or Naos tou Olimpiou Dios), also known as the Olympieion, is a colossal ruined temple in the centre of the Greek capital Athens that was dedicated to Zeus, king of the Olympian gods. Construction began in the 6th century BC during the rule of the Athenian tyrants, who envisaged building the greatest temple in the ancient world, but it was not completed until the reign of the Roman Emperor Hadrian in the 2nd century AD some 650 years after the project had begun. During the Roman periods it was renowned as the largest temple in Greece and housed one of the largest cult statues in the ancient world.

The Temple of Olympian Zeus, Athens

The temple's glory was shortlived, as it fell into disuse after being pillaged in a barbarian invasion in the 3rd century AD. It was probably never repaired and was reduced to ruins thereafter. In the centuries after the fall of the Roman Empire, the temple was extensively quarried for building materials to supply building projects elsewhere in the city. Despite this, substantial remains remain visible today and it continues to be a major tourist attraction.



The temple is located about 500 m (1640 feet) south-east of the Acropolis, and about 700 m (2,300 feet) south of the centre of Athens, Syntagma Square. Its foundations were laid on the site of an ancient outdoor sanctuary dedicated to Zeus. An earlier temple had stood there, constructed by the tyrant Pisistratus around 550 BC. The building was demolished after the death of Pisistratus and the construction of a colossal new Temple of Olympian Zeus was begun around 520 BC by his sons, Hippias and Hipparchos. They sought to surpass two famous contemporary temples, the Heraion of Samos and the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, which was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Designed by the architects Antistates, Callaeschrus, Antimachides and Porinus, the Temple of Olympian Zeus was intended to be built of local limestone in the Doric style on a colossal platform measuring 41 m (134.5 feet) by 108 m (353.5) feet. It was to be flanked by a double colonnade of eight columns across the front and back and twenty-one on the flanks, surrounding the cella.

The work was abandoned when the tyranny was overthrown and Hippias was expelled in 510 BC. Only the platform and some elements of the columns had been completed by this point, and the temple remained in this state for 336 years. The temple was left unfinished during the years of Athenian democracy, apparently because the Greeks thought it hubristic to build on such a scale. In the treatise Politics, Aristotle cited the temple as an example of how tyrannies engaged the populace in great works for the state and left them no time, energy or means to rebel. [1]



The Parthenon (Ancient Greek: ?a??e???) is a temple of the Greek goddess Athena, built in the 5th century BC on the Athenian Acropolis. It is the most important surviving building of Classical Greece, generally considered to be the culmination of the development of the Doric order. Its decorative sculptures are considered one of the high points of Greek art. The Parthenon is regarded as an enduring symbol of ancient Greece and of Athenian democracy, and one of the world's greatest cultural monuments. The Greek Ministry of Culture is currently carrying out a program of restoration and reconstruction. [1]

The Parthenon replaced an older temple of Athena, which historians call the Pre-Parthenon or Older Parthenon, that was destroyed in the Persian invasion of 480 BC. Like most Greek temples, the Parthenon was used as a treasury, and for a time served as the treasury of the Delian League, which later became the Athenian Empire. In the 6th century AD, the Parthenon was converted into a Christian church dedicated to the Virgin Mary. After the Ottoman conquest, it was converted into a mosque in the early 1460s, and it had a minaret built in it. On 26 September 1687 an Ottoman ammunition dump inside the building was ignited by Venetian bombardment. The resulting explosion severely damaged the Parthenon and its sculptures. In 1806, Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin removed some of the surviving sculptures, with Ottoman permission. These sculptures, now known as the Elgin or Parthenon Marbles, were sold in 1816 to the British Museum in London, where they are now displayed. The Greek government is committed to the return of the sculptures to Greece, so far with no success.[citation needed]



The first endeavor to build a sanctuary for Athena Parthenos on the site of the present Parthenon was begun shortly after the Battle of Marathon (c. 490-488 BC) upon a muscular limestone foundation that extended and leveled the southern part of the Acropolis summit. This building replaced a hekatompedon (meaning "hundred-footer") and would have stood beside the archaic temple dedicated to the Athena Polias. The Older or Pre-Parthenon, as it is frequently referred to, was still under construction when the Persians sacked the city in 480 BC and razed the Acropolis. [2]

In the mid-5th century BC, when the Athenian Acropolis became the seat of the Delian League and Athens was the greatest cultural centre of its time, Pericles initiated an ambitious building project which lasted the entire second half of the century. The most important buildings visible on the Acropolis today - the Parthenon, the Propylaia, the Erechtheion and the temple of Athena Nike - were erected during this period. The Parthenon was built under the general supervision of the sculptor Phidias, who also had charge of the sculptural decoration. The architects, Iktinos and Kallikrates, began in 447 BC, and the building was substantially completed by 432, but work on the decorations continued until at least 431. Some of the financial accounts for the Parthenon survive and show that the largest single expense was transporting the stone from Mount Pentelicus, about 16 kilometres from Athens, to the Acropolis. The funds were partly drawn from the treasury of the Delian League, which was moved from the Panhellenic sanctuary at Delos to the Acropolis in 454 BC.



Hellenic Pyramids

The existence of megalithic pyramids in Greece was unknown to most people until recently. One at Hellenikon has been dated to c.2720 BC. Images, description and references.

Externe referencer

For yderliger information, prøv at se på følgende hjemmesider:

Knossos, Kreta

Delphi

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